Dairy industry is the most representative big industry of food quality and safety. In recent years, with the rapid development of the world's dairy industry, China's dairy industry has also entered a period of rapid development. In 2018, China's milk production was 31.768 million tons, and dairy production was 26.871 million tons. China has become one of the world's major milk producers, with milk production accounting for 3.8% of the global total.
The whole value chain of dairy products includes three important links, namely, the production of fresh milk, the manufacture of dairy products and the consumption of dairy products. Any link in this industrial chain will affect the quality and safety of dairy products and even the development of the whole dairy industry. The following will mainly start with the safety guarantee in the production process of raw milk and the nutrition guarantee in the processing process of dairy products, and summarize the measures taken by dairy enterprises to ensure product quality, and introduce the quality status quo of China's dairy industry.
First, the safety of raw milk
Raw milk is raw milk, also known as fresh milk, is the raw material of dairy processing, it is the first link to control the quality and safety of dairy products. The quality of raw milk is closely related to dairy farming. According to the Product Quality Law, Food Safety Law, Dairy Quality Standards and Regulations on Supervision and Management of Dairy Quality and Safety, the quality and safety of raw milk includes health and nutrition safety. The quality and safety of raw milk are mainly ensured from the aspects of epidemic disease monitoring, veterinary drug residue detection and dairy cow management.
(1) The scale of dairy farming
We will raise the level of large-scale farming. In 2018, the average number of dairy cows in China's dairy farms (households) was 155, an increase of 41 cows, or 36.0%. Large-scale farming was further accelerated, with the proportion of large-scale farming with more than 100 animals reaching 61.4 percent, 3.1 percentage points higher than last year and 20.3 percentage points higher than in 2013.
Increase the yield per unit area of dairy cows. In 2018, the average per unit yield of Chinese dairy cows was 7.4 tons, up 0.4 tons year-on-year. The results of production performance measurement of cows in 1400 scale pastures with more than 100 cows showed that the cows produced 30.0 kg of milk per day on average, equivalent to 9.1 tons of milk in 305 days.
(2) Health and safety of raw milk
We will strengthen the construction of dairy farms. In 2018, China had 5,124 large-scale farms with more than 100 dairy cows. Large-scale dairy cattle farms in strict accordance with relevant laws and regulations, the implementation of Standardized Large-scale Dairy Cattle Production Technology Regulations, strengthen animal epidemic prevention and fresh milk quality and safety management, to achieve standardization, standardized construction and production. In recent years, the popularization and application of mechanization, information technology, intelligent equipment and key technologies in dairy farms have been accelerated, and the quality and safety guarantee capacity has been further strengthened.
Strengthen feed management. Alfalfa and silage corn are the main roughage for dairy cows. In 2018, China planted 5.5 million mu of high-quality alfalfa and produced 2.2 million tons, an increase of 1.189 million tons over 2013. High quality alfalfa can meet the feeding needs of 2 million lactating cows.
Disease surveillance and veterinary drug residue detection will be strengthened. Raw material suppliers or farms adopt various measures to control veterinary drug and antibiotic residues, such as identifying feed and refusing to use feed containing antibiotics; Separate milk from healthy cows and those treated with antibiotics, and do not sell milk from cows treated with the drug; Strengthen the treatment of milk cow mastitis in dry milk period; Strengthen feeding management, reduce the incidence of cow mastitis and other diseases. Relevant agencies have also made clear regulations on the functions of food supervision departments to release food safety information, and agricultural departments are responsible for releasing testing information on pesticide residues and veterinary drug residues in primary agricultural products.
Strengthen raw milk quality and safety index detection. The national standard for milk protein content in fresh milk is ≥2.8 g/100 g, the national standard for milk fat content is ≥3.1 g/100 g, and the national standard for non-fat milk solids content is ≥8.1 g/100 g. In the tests of fresh milk samples in 2018, the average milk protein content was 3.25 g/100 g, among which, the average milk protein content was 3.36 g/100 g in the samples of scale pastures. The average milk fat content was 3.84 g/100 g, among which the average milk fat content was 3.94 g/100 g in the sample of scale pasture, the former two were much higher than the national standard; The average solid content of non-fat milk is 8.9 g/100 g, higher than the national standard. The national standard of impurity degree in fresh milk is ≤4.0 mg/kg, and the qualified rate of sampling in 2018 reached 100%; The national standard for milk acidity ranges from 12 to 18°T, and the average milk acidity sampled in 2018 was 13.91°T; The national standard for the relative density of indicators reflecting whether milk is adulterated is 20℃/4℃≥1.027, and the average relative density of sampling samples is 1.031, higher than the national standard. The national standard for the total number of colonies was ≤2 million CFU/mL. In 2018, the average number of colonies was 295,000 CFU/mL, and the average number of colonies in the samples of large-scale pastures was 72,000 CFU/mL. The national standard of somatic cell count is less than 400,000 /mL. In 2018, the average somatic cell count was 330,400 /mL, and the average somatic cell count of samples from large-scale farms was 221,000 /mL. The affected content of relevant samples is much lower than the national standard 0.5 μg/kg; The average values of lead and cadmium samples were 0.031 mg/kg and 0.09 mg/kg respectively, which were much lower than the national standards of 0.05 mg/kg and 0.3 mg/kg
2. Nutrition guarantee in dairy processing
In 2018, China's dairy processing enterprises above designated size (with annual main business revenue of more than 20 million yuan) produced 26.871,000 tons of dairy products. Among them, the output of liquid milk was 25.055 million tons, and the output of milk powder was 968,000 tons. In the process of dairy, we guarantee the nutrition level of dairy from two aspects of standard formulation and technology.
We will improve regulations and standards for dairy products. China currently has more than 200 dairy standards, covering various aspects and fields such as dairy breeding, fresh milk, dairy products, production and processing, quality control and testing methods. In 2018, steady progress was made in the preparation and revision of four national standards, including the National Standard for Food Safety Pasteurized Milk, the National Standard for Food Safety Sterilized Milk, and the Inspection Method for Restored Milk in Pasteurized Milk and UHT sterilized Milk. Relevant authorities approved 1,195 formulas from 155 enterprises, started the drafting of the Liquid Milk Processing Technology Standards, and issued the Product Quality and Safety Traceability System Standard for Infant Formula Milk Powder Industry.
We will standardize the production process of various dairy products. At present, there are pasteurized milk, ultra-high temperature sterilized milk, fermented milk, mixed milk, restored milk, nutrient-fortified milk, low lactose milk and other dairy products available for consumers to choose from in the market. Regulate the production process of these dairy products to ensure their nutritional levels. Among them, pasteurized milk, fermented milk, nutrition fortified milk and so on in the process of processing to ensure the flavor and nutrition of the product. Pasteurized milk is processed for 30 minutes at 62-65℃ or 10-15 seconds at 72-85℃. This sterilization method can kill all pathogenic bacteria, make the milk meet the standards of safe drinking, and retain the nutritional flavor of the milk to the maximum extent. The milk should be sold under the cold chain condition of 2-6℃, with a shelf life of 2-7 days. Fermented milk is a flavored sour milk product made from the fermentation of Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus bulgaricus, which increases the digestion and absorption rate, is beneficial to the preservation of vitamins in the body, and regulates the balance of intestinal flora. Nutrient-fortified milk is a liquid milk product that is more nutrient-rich by adding nutrient-fortifying agents such as calcium, iron, zinc and vitamins on the basis of fresh milk. In addition, low lactose milk meets the needs of lactose intolerant people and ensures their dairy intake needs.
Iii. Measures taken by the enterprise to ensure product quality
With the rapid development of the dairy industry today, China is also committed to improving the competitiveness of dairy enterprises. Major enterprises have also made certain achievements for the development of the dairy industry from the aspects of improving laws and standards, optimizing product structure and popularizing dairy knowledge.
(1) Assist in improving standards and strengthen supervision
Dairy enterprises have extensively participated in the work of national food safety standards, actively cooperated with supervision and supervision, combined with national standards and production practice, further improved the quality and safety assurance level of enterprises, established the HACCP system, carried out GMP transformation, carried out product quality testing capacity construction, improve the quality and safety traceability system construction and other supporting hardware conditions.
(2) Optimize product structure and promote process innovation
Optimize the industrial chain and product mix. Dairy enterprises are committed to starting from the source, standardizing farm management, and building large-scale dairy cow production and breeding. Actively research and develop new dairy production technology, develop special dairy products and functional products suitable for different consumer needs according to local conditions, improve the value chain of products; We will further promote the development of dry dairy products such as cheese, whey powder, lactose and butter.
Carry out scientific and technological innovation. To organize research and development of functional base materials for infant formula milk powder, localization, import status of key raw and auxiliary materials for dairy products and countermeasures, and other special studies, promote the solution of industry development weaknesses, promote industrial transformation and upgrading; Develop various high and new technologies to ensure and improve the quality and nutritional composition of dairy products, such as high pressure technology, membrane separation technology, microcapsule technology and ultrafine grinding technology.
(3) Popularize dairy knowledge and strengthen publicity and guidance
In response to the call, dairy enterprises actively popularize dairy knowledge and conduct publicity and guidance, such as carrying out cheese campus promotion action, popularize cheese nutrition knowledge, and promote the optimization and upgrading of dairy processing and consumption structure; Make full use of publicity platforms such as "Quality Month" and "China Brand Day" to publicize high-quality brands by participating in China Independent Brand Expo and China Brand Development Forum.