The dairy industry is the most representative industry for food quality and safety. In recent years, with the rapid development of the world's dairy industry, my country's dairy industry has also entered a period of rapid development. In 2018, China's milk output was 31.768 million tons and the output of dairy products was 26.871 million tons. my country has become one of the world's largest dairy producers. , Milk production accounts for 3.8% of global production.
The entire value chain of dairy products includes three important links, namely the production of fresh milk, dairy product manufacturing and dairy consumption. Any link in this industrial chain will affect the quality and safety of dairy products, and even the entire dairy industry. development of. The following will mainly start with the safety guarantee in the production process of raw milk and the nutrition guarantee in the dairy processing process. It will summarize the measures taken by dairy companies to ensure product quality and introduce the quality status of China's dairy industry.
1. The safety of raw milk
Raw milk is raw milk, also known as raw milk. It is the raw material for dairy product processing, and it is the first link to control milk quality and safety. The quality of raw milk is closely related to dairy farming. According to my country's "Product Quality Law", "Food Safety Law", "Dairy Quality Standards" and "Milk Quality Safety Supervision and Administration Regulations", the quality and safety of raw milk includes two aspects: hygiene and nutrition. The quality and safety of raw milk are guaranteed in terms of disease monitoring, veterinary drug residue detection and dairy cow management.
(1) The scale of dairy farming
Improve the level of large-scale breeding. In 2018, China’s dairy farms (households) had an average of 155 dairy cows, an increase of 41 cows or 36.0% year-on-year; the process of large-scale breeding was further accelerated. The proportion of large-scale breeding of more than 100 cows was 61.4%, an increase of 3.1 percentage points year-on-year. An annual increase of 20.3 percentage points.
Improve the yield of dairy cows. In 2018, China's dairy cows produced an average of 7.4 tons per unit, a year-on-year increase of 0.4 tons. The results of the performance measurement of 1,400 dairy cows in large-scale pastures with more than 100 heads show that the average daily milk production of dairy cows is 30.0 kg, which is equivalent to 9.1 tons of milk in 305 days.
(2) Hygiene and safety of raw milk
Strengthen the construction of dairy farms. In 2018, there were 5124 large-scale farms with more than 100 dairy cows in China. Large-scale dairy farms strictly follow the "Animal Husbandry Law of the People's Republic of China" and other laws and regulations, implement the "Technical Regulations for Standardized Scale Breeding of Dairy Cows", strengthen animal epidemic prevention and raw milk quality and safety management, and achieve standardized and standardized construction and production . In recent years, the promotion and application of mechanized, informatized, intelligent equipment and key technologies of dairy farms has accelerated, and the quality and safety assurance capabilities have been further strengthened.
Strengthen feed management. Alfalfa and silage corn are the main roughage for dairy cows. In 2018, China's high-quality alfalfa planted area was 5.5 million mu, and the output was 2.2 million tons, an increase of 1.189 million tons over 2013. High-quality alfalfa can meet the feeding needs of 2 million lactating cows.
Strengthen disease surveillance and veterinary drug residue testing. Raw material suppliers or farms adopt a variety of measures to control the residues of veterinary drugs and antibiotics, such as identifying feeds and refusing to use feeds containing antibiotics; separating healthy dairy cows from dairy cows treated with antibiotics, which are produced by dairy cows in drug use. The milk is not sold; strengthen the treatment of dairy cow mastitis in the dry period; strengthen feeding management to reduce the incidence of other diseases such as dairy cow mastitis. The State Council has also made clear provisions on the functions of various food supervision departments to release food safety information, and the agricultural department is responsible for releasing testing information on pesticide residues and veterinary drug residues in primary agricultural products.
Strengthen the inspection of raw milk quality and safety indicators. The national standard for milk protein content in raw milk is ≥2.8 g/100 g, the national standard for milk fat content is ≥3.1 g/100 g, and the national standard for non-fat milk solids content is ≥8.1 g/100 g. In the test of fresh milk samples in 2018, the average milk protein content was 3.25 g/100 g, among which the average milk protein content was 3.36 g/100 g in the large-scale farm samples; the average milk fat content was 3.84 g/100 g Among them, the average value of the large-scale pasture samples is 3.94 g/100 g, the first two are much higher than the national standard; the average solid content of non-fat milk is 8.9 g/100 g, which is higher than the national standard. The national standard for impurities in raw milk is ≤4.0 mg/kg, and the sampling qualification rate in 2018 reached 100%; the national standard for milk acidity ranges from 12-18°T, and the average milk acidity sampled in 2018 is 13.91° T; The national standard for the relative density of the index reflecting whether milk is mixed with water is 20℃/4℃≥1.027, and the average relative density of the sampled samples is 1.031, which is higher than the national standard; the national standard for the total number of colonies is ≤2 million CFU/mL In the sampling test in 2018, the average total number of colonies was 295,000 CFU/mL, and the average total number of colonies in the large-scale pasture samples was 72,000 CFU/mL; the national standard for the number of somatic cells was ≤400,000/mL, in 2018 In the sampling test, the average number of somatic cells was 330,400 cells/mL, and the average number of somatic cells in the samples of large-scale farms was 221,000 cells/mL; the average number of samples detected by aflatoxin M1 was 0.055 μg/kg, Far lower than the national standard 0.5 μg/kg; the average values of lead and cadmium detected samples are 0.031 mg/kg and 0.09 mg/kg, respectively, which are far lower than the national standard 0.05 mg/kg and 0.3 mg/kg; melamine and leather The sampling qualification rate of the hydrolysate is 100%.
2. Nutritional protection during dairy processing
In 2018, China's dairy products processing enterprises above designated size (annual main business income above 20 million yuan) produced 26.871 million tons of dairy products. Among them, the output of liquid milk was 25.55 million tons and the output of milk powder was 968,000 tons. In the processing of dairy products, my country guarantees the nutritional level of dairy products from two aspects: standard formulation and perfection and technology.
Improve the regulations and standards of dairy products. There are more than 200 current dairy industry standards in China, covering various links and fields such as dairy farming, fresh milk, dairy products, production and processing, quality control, and testing methods. In 2018, the formulation and revision of 4 national standards including "National Food Safety Standard Pasteurized Milk", "National Food Safety Standard Sterilized Milk", and "Inspection Method of Reconstituted Milk in Pasteurized Milk and UHT Sterilized Milk", etc., were steadily advanced. The State Administration for Market Regulation approved 1,195 formulas from 155 companies, initiated the drafting of the "Liquid Milk Processing Technology Standard", and issued the "Product Quality and Safety Traceability System Specification for Infant Formula Milk Powder Industry."
Standardize the production process of various dairy products. At present, consumers can choose from pasteurized milk, ultra-high temperature sterilized milk, fermented milk, modified milk, reconstituted milk, nutritionally fortified milk, low-lactose milk and other dairy products. Standardize the production process of these dairy products to ensure their nutritional level. Among them, pasteurized milk, fermented milk, and nutrient-fortified milk ensure the flavor and nutrition of the product during processing. The processing technology of pasteurized milk is 62-65°C for 30 minutes or 72-85°C for 10-15 seconds. This sterilization method can kill all pathogenic bacteria, make the milk reach the standard of safe drinking, and retain the maximum extent. The nutritional flavor of milk must be sold under cold chain conditions at 2-6°C, with a shelf life of 2-7 days. Fermented milk is a flavored yogurt product fermented with Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus bulgaricus, which increases the digestion and absorption rate, helps preserve vitamins in the body, and regulates the balance of intestinal flora. Nutrient-fortified milk is a liquid milk product with richer nutrients made by adding nutrient fortifiers, such as calcium, iron, zinc, vitamins and other auxiliary materials on the basis of raw milk. In addition, low-lactose milk meets the needs of people with lactose intolerance and ensures the dairy intake needs of such people.